Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve and is connected with the internal pressure of the eye. The optic nerve is responsible for transferring images to the brain and could be likened to an electric cable containing a large number of small wire fiber (nerve fibers). In glaucoma, these nerve fibers become damaged, creating the so-called “blind spots”. Specifically, within the eye flowing a clean fluid (aqueous humor) which periodically apocheftefetai order to ensure a smooth flow into the eye.
In glaucoma, due to a “failure” of the sewer system, preventing the steady flow and inner pressure of the eye rises, creating local lesions along the optic nerve. Depending on the extent and causes this damage and have the respective formulas glaucoma symptoms.
What are the different types of glaucoma?
- Low pressure glaucoma: due to a reduction in vascular invasive pressure on the optic nerve head.
- Open Angle Glaucoma: is the most commonly occurring form of glaucoma (1/200 individuals> 40 years) , hereditary nature and due to aging. Over the years the drainage pathway decreases continuously and gradually increases the internal pressure.
- Secondary glaucoma: usually occurs after inflammation, trauma, chronic medication, etc.
- Congenital glaucoma: occurs in 1/10000 births with particular frequency in boys (65%).
- Angle closure glaucoma: preventing the flow of aqueous liquid, as a result of occlusion of the angle of the peripheral iris. 1/1000 affects people over 40 years with a ratio of 4/1 women / men.
What are the symptoms?
Unfortunately, the concern with this condition is that in the early stages develops without showing any symptoms the patient. Because the patient knows that he suffers from glaucoma, the disease progresses and when cause vision problems, resorting to the doctor treating the main symptom of the loss of peripheral vision.
For this reason, the interest of scientists and technology has focused on the early diagnosis of glaucoma that is when the fields are still normal. The prevention of glaucoma is very important and is accomplished by controlling the optical field and the corneal pachymetry and GTX. People with a history of glaucoma in the family should be checked once a year preventively by their ophthalmologist.
High-risk groups: nearsighted patients, diabetics, patients with cardiovascular problems, the elderly over 60 years.
In general, damage caused by glaucoma is irreversible. Eyedrops, pills, laser or surgical interventions used to prevent or delay further damage.
- Medication: Glaucoma is usually controlled with eye drops taken several times a day, sometimes combined with pills. These drugs reduce the intraocular pressure, either by delaying the production of aqueous humor within the eye or by improving the flow of the drainage angle.
- Surgery Laser: It represents a safe and painless method is indicated in certain types of glaucoma and is usually a complement of medication.
- Invasive Surgery is performed if the two previous treatments fail, or sooner if the doctor deems it appropriate. Usually intervenes when the pressure of the eye is not adjusted with drugs and laser when despite therapy is aggravation of the clinical status. Without surgery achieve the best fluid passage of the eye through an opening created.